This is the history of fishing.

Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are normally caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping. “Fishing” may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods, crustaceans, and echinoderms. The term is not normally applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. In addition to being caught to be eaten, fish are caught as recreational pastimes. Fishing tournaments are held, and caught fish are sometimes kept as preserved or living trophies. When bioblitzes occur, fish are typically caught, identified, and then released.

According to the United Nations FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries.[1] In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms.[2]

Contents 1 History 1.1 Trawling 1.2 Recreational fishing 2 Techniques 3 Tackle 4 Fishing vessels 5 Traditional fishing 6 Recreational fishing 7 Fishing industry 7.1 Commercial fishing 7.2 Fish farms 7.3 Fish products 7.4 Fish marketing 8 Fisheries management 8.1 Sustainability 9 Animal welfare concerns 10 Cultural impact 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links History

Stone Age fish hook made from bone Main articles: History of fishing and History of seafood Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago.[3] Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he regularly consumed freshwater fish.[4][5] Archaeology features such as shell middens,[6] discarded fish bones, and cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities.

Fishing in Africa is evident very early on in human history. Neanderthals were fishing by about 200,000 BC.[7] People could have developed basketry for fish traps, and spinning and early forms of knitting in order to make fishing nets[8] to be able to catch more fish in larger quantities.

During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity, constantly on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements (though not necessarily permanently occupied) such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are almost always associated with fishing as a major source of food.


Fishermen with traditional fish traps, Vietnam Main article: Fishing techniques There are many fishing techniques and tactics for catching fish. The term can also be applied to methods for catching other aquatic animals such as molluscs (shellfish, squid, octopus) and edible marine invertebrates.

Fishing techniques include hand gathering, spearfishing, netting, angling and trapping. Recreational, commercial and artisanal fishers use different techniques, and also, sometimes, the same techniques. Recreational fishers fish for pleasure, sport, or to provide food for themselves, while commercial fishers fish for profit. Artisanal fishers use traditional, low-tech methods, for survival in third-world countries, and as a cultural heritage in other countries. Usually, recreational fishers use angling methods and commercial

fishers use netting methods.

Why a fish bites a baited hook or lure involves a number of factors related to the sensory physiology, behaviour, feeding ecology, and biology of the fish as well as the environment and characteristics of the bait/hook/lure.[27] There is an intricate link between various fishing techniques and knowledge about the fish and their behaviour including migration, foraging and habitat. The effective use of fishing techniques often depends on this additional knowledge.[28] Some fishermen follow fishing folklores which claim that fish feeding patterns are influenced by the position of the sun and the moon.

FAO 2007

NOAA: Sport fishing boat FAO Fisheries Section: Glossary: Fishing industry. Retrieved 28 May 2008. "Today's Fishing Industry". Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. 10 December 2007. Archived from the original on 14 June 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2012. Tidwell, James H. and Allan, Geoff L. Sneddon, LU (2009). "Pain perception in fish: indicators and endpoints". ILAR Journal. 50 (4): 38–42. PMID 19949250. Oidtmann, B; Hoffman, RW (July – August 2001). "Pain and suffering in fish". Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift. 114 (7–8): 277–282. PMID 11505801. "Do fish feel pain? Not as humans do, study suggests". ScienceDaily. 8 August 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2017. Lund, V; Mejdell, CM; Röcklinsberg, H; Anthony, R; Håstein, T (4 May 2007). "Expanding the moral circle: farmed fish as objects of moral concern". Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 75 (2): 109–118. doi:10.3354/dao075109. PMID 17578250. Davie, PS; Kopf, RK (August 2006). "Physiology, behaviour and welfare of fish during recreational fishing and after release". New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 54 (4): 161–172. doi:10.1080/00480169.2006.36690. PMID 16915337. "Catching fish then letting them go is actually causing them harm". The Independent. Retrieved 10 October 2018.

A group of dextral strike-slip structures, known as the Marlborough Fault System, transfer displacement between the mainly transform and convergent type plate boundaries in a complex zone at the northern end of the South Island. The earthquake occurred on the Wairarapa Fault which is part of the NIFS.

"International Collective in Support of Fishworkers". ICSF. 2 March 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012

Regensteinn J.M. and Regensteinn C.E. (2000) "Religious food laws and the seafood industry" In: R.E. Martin, E.P. Carter, G.J. Flick Jr and L.M. Davis (Eds) (2000) Marine and freshwater products handbook, CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-56676-889-4. African fishermen find way of conservation in the Koran The Christian Science Monitor A Misunderstood Analogy for Evangelism Bible Analysis Article American Bible Society Article Archived 5 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine American Bible Society About Pisces the Fish The Astrology Cafe Monitor Peter: From Fisherman to Fisher of Men Profiles of Faith Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Further reading Schultz, Ken (1999). Fishing Encyclopedia: Worldwide Angling Guide. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-02-862057-2. Gabriel, Otto; Andres von Brandt (2005). Fish catching methods of the world. Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-85238-280-6. Sahrhage, Dietrich; Johannes Lundbeck (1992). A History of Fishing. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-0-387-55332-0.


fishing should be classified as the best activity in the world as long as im not fishing i will be hunting or preparing to fish.

Tfishing should be a job for the poorer people but no one cares abou the poorer peopl just the money they make but who cares just as long as you are out there fishing on the beach all is well.

Why a fish bites a baited hook or lure involves a number of factors related to the sensory physiology, behaviour, feeding ecology, and biology of the fish as well as the environment and characteristics of the bait/hook/lure.[27] There is an intricate link between various fishing techniques and knowledge about the fish and their behaviour including migration, foraging and habitat. The effective use of fishing techniques often depends on this additional knowledge.[28] Some fishermen follow fishing folklores which claim that fish feeding patterns are influenced by the position of the sun and the moon.


Man seated at the side of the water surrounded by fishing rods and tackle. An angler on the Kennet and Avon Canal, England, with his tackle Main article: Fishing tackle

Fishing tackle is the equipment used by fishermen when fishing. Almost any equipment or gear used for fishing can be called fishing tackle. Some examples are hooks, lines, sinkers, floats, rods, reels, baits, lures, spears, nets, gaffs, traps, waders and tackle boxes.

Tackle that is attached to the end of a fishing line is called terminal tackle. This includes hooks, sinkers, floats, leaders, swivels, split rings and wire, snaps, beads, spoons, blades, spinners and clevises to attach spinner blades to fishing lures. People also tend to used dead or live fish as another form of bait.

Fishing tackle refers to the physical equipment that is used when fishing, whereas fishing techniques refers to the ways the tackle is used when fishing.

Trawling The British dogger was an early type of sailing trawler from the 17th century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham needed to expand their fishing area further than ever before due to the ongoing depletion of stocks that was occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon. The Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a sleek build and had a tall gaff rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make long distance trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were also sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water. The great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of 'Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'.[9]

Painting of A Brixham trawler by William Adolphus Knell. The painting is now in the National Maritime Museum. This revolutionary design made large scale trawling in the ocean possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further north, such as Scarborough, Hull, Grimsby, Harwich and Yarmouth, that were points of access to the large fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.[9]

The small village of Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port in the world[10] by the mid 19th century. An Act of Parliament was first obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper.[11] It was only in the 1846, with the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, that the Grimsby Dock Company was formed. The foundation stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849. The dock covered 25 acres (10 ha) and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the first modern fishing port.

The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world, influencing fishing fleets everywhere.[12] By the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with almost 1,000 at Grimsby. These trawlers were sold to fishermen around Europe, including from the Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet.[13]

The earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s and used the trawl system of fishing as well as lines and drift nets. These were large boats, usually 80–90 feet (24–27 m) in length with a beam of around 20 feet (6.1 m). They weighed 40–50 tons and travelled at 9–11 knots (17–20 km/h; 10–13 mph). The earliest purpose built fishing vessels were designed and made by David Allan in Leith, Scotland in March 1875, when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built the first screw propelled steam trawler in the world.[14]

Steam trawlers were introduced at Grimsby and Hull in the 1880s. In 1890 it was estimated that there were 20,000 men on the North Sea. The steam drifter was not used in the herring fishery until 1897. The last sailing fishing trawler was built in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the end of World War II.

In 1931, the first powered drum was created by Laurie Jarelainen. The drum was a circular device that was set to the side of the boat and would draw in the nets. Since World War II, radio navigation aids and fish finders have been widely used. The first trawlers fished over the side, rather than over the stern. The first purpose built stern trawler was Fairtry built in 1953 at Aberdeen, Scotland. The ship was much larger than any other trawlers then in operation and inaugurated the era of the 'super trawler'. As the ship pulled its nets over the stern, it could lift out a much greater haul of up to 60 tons.[15] The ship served as a basis for the expansion of 'super trawlers' around the world in the following decades.[15]